1. Tableau Business Intelligence

[Linux] Top 50 lệnh phổ biến trên Linux

Discussion in 'Công nghệ' started by phamthanhnhan14, Jul 4, 2014.

  1. phamthanhnhan14

    phamthanhnhan14 Active Member

    1. tar command
    Create a new tar archive.
    $ tar cvf archive_name.tar dirname/
    Extract from an existing tar archive.
    $ tar xvf archive_name.tar
    View an existing tar archive.
    $ tar tvf archive_name.tar
    2. grep command examples
    Search for a given string in a file (case in-sensitive search).
    $ grep -i "the" demo_file
    Print the matched line, along with the 3 lines after it.
    $ grep -A 3 -i "example" demo_text
    Search for a given string in all files recursively
    $ grep -r "ramesh" *
    3. find command examples
    Find files using file-name ( case in-sensitve find)
    # find -iname "MyCProgram.c"
    Execute commands on files found by the find command
    $ find -iname "MyCProgram.c" -exec md5sum {} \;
    Find all empty files in home directory
    # find ~ -empty
    4. ssh command examples
    Login to remote host
    ssh -l jsmith remotehost.example.com
    Debug ssh client
    ssh -v -l jsmith remotehost.example.com
    Display ssh client version
    $ ssh -V
    OpenSSH_3.9p1, OpenSSL 0.9.7a Feb 19 2003
    5. sed command examples
    When you copy a DOS file to Unix, you could find \r\n in the end of each line. This example converts the DOS file format to Unix file format using sed command.
    $sed 's/.$//' filename
    Print file content in reverse order
    $ sed -n '1!G;h;$p' thegeekstuff.txt
    Add line number for all non-empty-lines in a file
    $ sed '/./=' thegeekstuff.txt | sed 'N; s/\n/ /'
    (còn tiếp)
    Nguồn
     
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  3. phamthanhnhan14

    phamthanhnhan14 Active Member

    6. awk command examples
    Remove duplicate lines using awk
    $ awk '!($0 in array) { array[$0]; print }' temp
    Print all lines from /etc/passwd that has the same uid and gid
    $awk -F ':' '$3==$4' passwd.txt
    Print only specific field from a file.
    $ awk '{print $2,$5;}' employee.txt
    7. vim command examples
    Go to the 143rd line of file
    $ vim +143 filename.txt
    Go to the first match of the specified
    $ vim +/search-term filename.txt
    Open the file in read only mode.
    $ vim -R /etc/passwd
    8. diff command examples
    Ignore white space while comparing.
    # diff -w name_list.txt name_list_new.txt
    2c2,3
    < John Doe --- > John M Doe
    > Jason Bourne
    9. sort command examples
    Sort a file in ascending order
    $ sort names.txt
    Sort a file in descending order
    $ sort -r names.txt
    Sort passwd file by 3rd field.
    $ sort -t: -k 3n /etc/passwd | more
    10. export command examples
    To view oracle related environment variables.
    $ export | grep ORACLE
    declare -x ORACLE_BASE="/u01/app/oracle"
    declare -x ORACLE_HOME="/u01/app/oracle/product/10.2.0"
    declare -x ORACLE_SID="med"
    declare -x ORACLE_TERM="xterm"

    To export an environment variable:
    $ export ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/10.2.0
     
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  4. phamthanhnhan14

    phamthanhnhan14 Active Member

    11. xargs command examples
    Copy all images to external hard-drive
    # ls *.jpg | xargs -n1 -i cp {} /external-hard-drive/directory
    Search all jpg images in the system and archive it.
    # find / -name *.jpg -type f -print | xargs tar -cvzf images.tar.gz
    Download all the URLs mentioned in the url-list.txt file
    # cat url-list.txt | xargs wget –c
    12. ls command examples
    Display filesize in human readable format (e.g. KB, MB etc.,)
    $ ls -lh
    -rw-r----- 1 ramesh team-dev 8.9M Jun 12 15:27 arch-linux.txt.gz
    Order Files Based on Last Modified Time (In Reverse Order) Using ls -ltr
    $ ls -ltr
    Visual Classification of Files With Special Characters Using ls -F
    $ ls -F
    More ls examples: Unix LS Command: 15 Practical Examples
    13. pwd command
    pwd is Print working directory. What else can be said about the good old pwd who has been printing the current directory name for ages.
    14. cd command examples
    Use “cd -” to toggle between the last two directories
    Use “shopt -s cdspell” to automatically correct mistyped directory names on cd
    More cd examples: 6 Awesome Linux cd command Hacks
    15. gzip command examples
    To create a *.gz compressed file:
    $ gzip test.txt
    To uncompress a *.gz file:
    $ gzip -d test.txt.gz
    Display compression ratio of the compressed file using gzip -l
    $ gzip -l *.gz
    compressed uncompressed ratio uncompressed_name
    23709 97975 75.8% asp-patch-rpms.txt
    (Còn tiếp)
     
    bsdinsight likes this.
  5. bsdinsight

    bsdinsight Well-Known Member

    Tks @phamthanhnhan14 - Chưa thấy YUM nhẻ, lệnh này hỗ trợ rất nhiều cho anh/em cài đặt trên Linux!
     
    phamthanhnhan14 likes this.
  6. phamthanhnhan14

    phamthanhnhan14 Active Member

    16. bzip2 command examples
    To create a *.bz2 compressed file:
    $ bzip2 test.txt
    To uncompress a *.bz2 file:
    bzip2 -d test.txt.bz2
    17. unzip command examples
    To extract a *.zip compressed file:
    $ unzip test.zip
    View the contents of *.zip file (Without unzipping it):
    $ unzip -l jasper.zip
    Archive: jasper.zip
    Length Date Time Name
    -------- ---- ---- ----
    40995 11-30-98 23:50 META-INF/MANIFEST.MF
    32169 08-25-98 21:07 classes_
    15964 08-25-98 21:07 classes_names
    10542 08-25-98 21:07 classes_ncomp
    18. shutdown command examples
    Shutdown the system and turn the power off immediately.
    # shutdown -h now
    Shutdown the system after 10 minutes.
    # shutdown -h +10
    Reboot the system using shutdown command.
    # shutdown -r now
    Force the filesystem check during reboot.
    # shutdown -Fr now
    19. ftp command examples
    Both ftp and secure ftp (sftp) has similar commands. To connect to a remote server and download multiple files, do the following.
    $ ftp IP/hostname
    ftp> mget *.html
    To view the file names located on the remote server before downloading, mls ftp command as shown below.
    ftp> mls *.html -
    /ftptest/features.html
    /ftptest/index.html
    /ftptest/othertools.html
    /ftptest/samplereport.html
    /ftptest/usage.html
    More ftp examples: FTP and SFTP Beginners Guide with 10 Examples
    20. crontab command examples
    View crontab entry for a specific user
    # crontab -u john -l
    Schedule a cron job every 10 minutes.
    */10 * * * * /home/ramesh/check-disk-space
     
  7. phamthanhnhan14

    phamthanhnhan14 Active Member

    21. service command examples
    Service command is used to run the system V init scripts. i.e Instead of calling the scripts located in the /etc/init.d/ directory with their full path, you can use the service command.
    Check the status of a service:
    # service ssh status
    Check the status of all the services.
    service --status-all
    Restart a service.
    # service ssh restart
    22. ps command examples
    ps command is used to display information about the processes that are running in the system.
    While there are lot of arguments that could be passed to a ps command, following are some of the common ones.
    To view current running processes.
    $ ps -ef | more
    To view current running processes in a tree structure. H option stands for process hierarchy.
    $ ps -efH | more
    23. free command examples
    This command is used to display the free, used, swap memory available in the system.
    Typical free command output. The output is displayed in bytes.
    $ free
    total used free shared buffers cached
    Mem: 3566408 1580220 1986188 0 203988 902960
    -/+ buffers/cache: 473272 3093136
    Swap: 4000176 0 4000176
    If you want to quickly check how many GB of RAM your system has use the -g option. -b option displays in bytes, -k in kilo bytes, -m in mega bytes.
    $ free -g
    total used free shared buffers cached
    Mem: 3 1 1 0 0 0
    -/+ buffers/cache: 0 2
    Swap: 3 0 3
    If you want to see a total memory ( including the swap), use the -t switch, which will display a total line as shown below.
    ramesh@ramesh-laptop:~$ free -t
    total used free shared buffers cached
    Mem: 3566408 1592148 1974260 0 204260 912556
    -/+ buffers/cache: 475332 3091076
    Swap: 4000176 0 4000176
    Total: 7566584 1592148 5974436
    24. top command examples
    top command displays the top processes in the system ( by default sorted by cpu usage ). To sort top output by any column, Press O (upper-case O) , which will display all the possible columns that you can sort by as shown below.
    Current Sort Field: P for window 1:Def
    Select sort field via field letter, type any other key to return
    a: PID = Process Id v: nDRT = Dirty Pages count
    d: UID = User Id y: WCHAN = Sleeping in Function
    e: USER = User Name z: Flags = Task Flags.......

    To displays only the processes that belong to a particular user use -u option. The following will show only the top processes that belongs to oracle user.
    $ top -u oracle
    25. df command examples
    Displays the file system disk space usage. By default df -k displays output in bytes.
    $ df -k
    Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on
    /dev/sda1 29530400 3233104 24797232 12% /
    /dev/sda2 120367992 50171596 64082060 44% /home
    df -h displays output in human readable form. i.e size will be displayed in GB’s.
    ramesh@ramesh-laptop:~$ df -h
    Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
    /dev/sda1 29G 3.1G 24G 12% /
    /dev/sda2 115G 48G 62G 44% /home
    Use -T option to display what type of file system.
    ramesh@ramesh-laptop:~$ df -T
    Filesystem Type 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on
    /dev/sda1 ext4 29530400 3233120 24797216 12% /
    /dev/sda2 ext4 120367992 50171596 64082060 44% /home
     
  8. phamthanhnhan14

    phamthanhnhan14 Active Member

    Một ngày mình thử 5 cái là đẹp rồi ^^
    Sẽ post chi tiết lệnh yum trong thời gian tới.
     
  9. bsdinsight

    bsdinsight Well-Known Member

    Và poweroff thì khác và giống nhau cái gì vậy?
     
  10. phamthanhnhan14

    phamthanhnhan14 Active Member

    shutdown : tắt máy 1 cách an toàn, dừng tất cả dịch vụ trước khi thực sự tắt máy, chạy ở file /sbin/shutdown
    poweroff: tắt 1 cách đột ngột, kiểu như force shutdown trong windows, không chờ các chương trình thực sự tắt, chạy ở file /sbin/poweroff
    shutdown - P now thì tương đương với poweroff, làm cái rụp luôn.
    Trên đây chỉ là quan điểm hạn hẹp của em, mong bác chỉ giáo :D
     
  11. Quỳnh

    Quỳnh New Member

    YUM chỉ xài cho RHEL, CentOS, ScientificLinux và Fedora, ko thật sự là command cơ bản

    yum search <packagename>

    yum install <packagename> <packagename> <packagename> <packagename> <packagename>

    yum groupinstall "<package group name>"
     
    phamthanhnhan14 and bsdinsight like this.
  12. Quỳnh

    Quỳnh New Member

    Các command cơ bản cần biết nè:
    mkdir
    cd
    rm
    mv
    cp
    ls
    ll
    man
    chmod
    export
    echo
    su
     
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  13. phamthanhnhan14

    phamthanhnhan14 Active Member

    26. kill command examples
    Use kill command to terminate a process. First get the process id using ps -ef command, then use kill -9 to kill the running Linux process as shown below. You can also use killall, pkill, xkill to terminate a unix process.
    $ ps -ef | grep vim
    ramesh 7243 7222 9 22:43 pts/2 00:00:00 vim
    $ kill -9 7243
    More kill examples: 4 Ways to Kill a Process – kill, killall, pkill, xkill
    27. rm command examples
    Get confirmation before removing the file.
    $ rm -i filename.txt
    It is very useful while giving shell metacharacters in the file name argument.
    Print the filename and get confirmation before removing the file.
    $ rm -i file*
    Following example recursively removes all files and directories under the example directory. This also removes the example directory itself.
    $ rm -r example
    28. cp command examples
    Copy file1 to file2 preserving the mode, ownership and timestamp.
    $ cp -p file1 file2
    Copy file1 to file2. if file2 exists prompt for confirmation before overwritting it.
    $ cp -i file1 file2
    29. mv command examples
    Rename file1 to file2. if file2 exists prompt for confirmation before overwritting it.
    $ mv -i file1 file2
    Note: mv -f is just the opposite, which will overwrite file2 without prompting.
    mv -v will print what is happening during file rename, which is useful while specifying shell metacharacters in the file name argument.
    $ mv -v file1 file2
    30. cat command examples
    You can view multiple files at the same time. Following example prints the content of file1 followed by file2 to stdout.
    $ cat file1 file2
    While displaying the file, following cat -n command will prepend the line number to each line of the output.
    $ cat -n /etc/logrotate.conf
    1 /var/log/btmp {
    2 missingok
    3 monthly
    4 create 0660 root utmp
    5 rotate 1
    6 }
     
  14. phamthanhnhan14

    phamthanhnhan14 Active Member

    31. mount command examples
    To mount a file system, you should first create a directory and mount it as shown below.
    # mkdir /u01
    # mount /dev/sdb1 /u01
    You can also add this to the fstab for automatic mounting. i.e Anytime system is restarted, the filesystem will be mounted.
    /dev/sdb1 /u01 ext2 defaults 0 2
    32. chmod command examples
    chmod command is used to change the permissions for a file or directory.
    Give full access to user and group (i.e read, write and execute ) on a specific file.
    $ chmod ug+rwx file.txt
    Revoke all access for the group (i.e read, write and execute ) on a specific file.
    $ chmod g-rwx file.txt
    Apply the file permissions recursively to all the files in the sub-directories.
    $ chmod -R ug+rwx file.txt
    More chmod examples: 7 Chmod Command Examples for Beginners
    33. chown command examples
    chown command is used to change the owner and group of a file. \
    To change owner to oracle and group to db on a file. i.e Change both owner and group at the same time.
    $ chown oracle:dba dbora.sh
    Use -R to change the ownership recursively.
    $ chown -R oracle:dba /home/oracle
    34. passwd command examples
    Change your password from command line using passwd. This will prompt for the old password followed by the new password.
    $ passwd
    Super user can use passwd command to reset others password. This will not prompt for current password of the user.
    # passwd USERNAME
    Remove password for a specific user. Root user can disable password for a specific user. Once the password is disabled, the user can login without entering the password.
    # passwd -d USERNAME
    35. mkdir command examples
    Following example creates a directory called temp under your home directory.
    $ mkdir ~/temp
    Create nested directories using one mkdir command. If any of these directories exist already, it will not display any error. If any of these directories doesn’t exist, it will create them.
    $ mkdir -p dir1/dir2/dir3/dir4/
     
  15. phamthanhnhan14

    phamthanhnhan14 Active Member

    36. ifconfig command examples
    Use ifconfig command to view or configure a network interface on the Linux system.
    View all the interfaces along with status.
    $ ifconfig -a
    Start or stop a specific interface using up and down command as shown below.
    $ ifconfig eth0 up
    $ ifconfig eth0 down
    37. uname command examples
    Uname command displays important information about the system such as — Kernel name, Host name, Kernel release number,
    Processor type, etc.,
    Sample uname output from a Ubuntu laptop is shown below.
    $ uname -a
    Linux john-laptop 2.6.32-24-generic #41-Ubuntu SMP Thu Aug 19 01:12:52 UTC 2010 i686 GNU/Linux
    38. whereis command examples
    When you want to find out where a specific Unix command exists (for example, where does ls command exists?), you can execute the following command.
    $ whereis ls
    ls: /bin/ls /usr/share/man/man1/ls.1.gz /usr/share/man/man1p/ls.1p.gz
    When you want to search an executable from a path other than the whereis default path, you can use -B option and give path as argument to it. This searches for the executable lsmk in the /tmp directory, and displays it, if it is available.
    $ whereis -u -B /tmp -f lsmk
    lsmk: /tmp/lsmk
    39. whatis command examples
    Whatis command displays a single line description about a command.
    $ whatis ls
    ls (1) - list directory contents
    $ whatis ifconfig
    ifconfig (8) - configure a network interface
    40. locate command examples
    Using locate command you can quickly search for the location of a specific file (or group of files). Locate command uses the database created by updatedb.
    The example below shows all files in the system that contains the word crontab in it.
    $ locate crontab
    /etc/anacrontab
    /etc/crontab
    /usr/bin/crontab
    /usr/share/doc/cron/examples/crontab2english.pl.gz
    /usr/share/man/man1/crontab.1.gz
    /usr/share/man/man5/anacrontab.5.gz
    /usr/share/man/man5/crontab.5.gz
    /usr/share/vim/vim72/syntax/crontab.vim
     
  16. phamthanhnhan14

    phamthanhnhan14 Active Member

    41. man command examples
    Display the man page of a specific command.
    $ man crontab
    When a man page for a command is located under more than one section, you can view the man page for that command from a specific section as shown below.
    $ man SECTION-NUMBER commandname
    Following 8 sections are available in the man page.
    1. General commands
    2. System calls
    3. C library functions
    4. Special files (usually devices, those found in /dev) and drivers
    5. File formats and conventions
    6. Games and screensavers
    7. Miscellaneous
    8. System administration commands and daemons
      For example, when you do whatis crontab, you’ll notice that crontab has two man pages (section 1 and section 5). To view section 5 of crontab man page, do the following.
    $ whatis crontab
    crontab (1) - maintain crontab files for individual users (V3)
    crontab (5) - tables for driving cron
    $ man 5 crontab
    42. tail command examples
    Print the last 10 lines of a file by default.
    $ tail filename.txt
    Print N number of lines from the file named filename.txt
    $ tail -n N filename.txt
    View the content of the file in real time using tail -f. This is useful to view the log files, that keeps growing. The command can be terminated using CTRL-C.
    $ tail -f log-file
    43. less command examples
    less is very efficient while viewing huge log files, as it doesn’t need to load the full file while opening.
    $ less huge-log-file.log
    One you open a file using less command, following two keys are very helpful.
    CTRL+F – forward one window
    CTRL+B – backward one window
    44. su command examples
    Switch to a different user account using su command. Super user can switch to any other user without entering their password.
    $ su - USERNAME
    Execute a single command from a different account name. In the following example, john can execute the ls command as raj username. Once the command is executed, it will come back to john’s account.
    [john@dev-server]$ su - raj -c 'ls'
    [john@dev-server]$
    Login to a specified user account, and execute the specified shell instead of the default shell.
    $ su -s 'SHELLNAME' USERNAME
    45. mysql command examples
    mysql is probably the most widely used open source database on Linux. Even if you don’t run a mysql database on your server, you might end-up using the mysql command ( client ) to connect to a mysql database running on the remote server.
    To connect to a remote mysql database. This will prompt for a password.
    $ mysql -u root -p -h 192.168.1.2
    To connect to a local mysql database.
    $ mysql -u root -p
    If you want to specify the mysql root password in the command line itself, enter it immediately after -p (without any space).
     
  17. phamthanhnhan14

    phamthanhnhan14 Active Member

    46. yum command examples
    To install apache using yum.
    $ yum install httpd
    To upgrade apache using yum.
    $ yum update httpd
    To uninstall/remove apache using yum.
    $ yum remove httpd
    47. rpm command examples
    To install apache using rpm.
    # rpm -ivh httpd-2.2.3-22.0.1.el5.i386.rpm
    To upgrade apache using rpm.
    # rpm -uvh httpd-2.2.3-22.0.1.el5.i386.rpm
    To uninstall/remove apache using rpm.
    # rpm -ev httpd
    48. ping command examples
    Ping a remote host by sending only 5 packets.
    $ ping -c 5 gmail.com
    49. date command examples
    Set the system date:
    # date -s "01/31/2010 23:59:53"
    Once you’ve changed the system date, you should syncronize the hardware clock with the system date as shown below.
    # hwclock –systohc
    # hwclock --systohc –utc
    50. wget command examples
    The quick and effective method to download software, music, video from internet is using wget command.
    $ wget http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/nagios/nagios-3.2.1.tar.gz
    Download and store it with a different name.
    $ wget -O taglist.zip http://www.vim.org/scripts/download_script.php?src_id=7701
     
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